What does Quinn imply about "Takers"?
Quinn implies that Takers are the people that are destroying the world, not only for them, but for other species too. They have created a new civilization system that has never worked, but they thought it had, replacing the one that had worked for over 5,000 years. They have changed the way of life, calling themselves civilized and the ones who don't destroy the world: primitive. He implies that the Taker culture has spread over the world, and will eventually conquer the minuscule portion of Leaver culture that is still left here and there. That will be the final stand for humanity.
How has the relation between Ishmael and the protagonist changed?
The relationship between Ishmael and the protagonist has changed dramatically, you could say it has evolved. Ishmael is not thought of as a gorilla any more, but as a person, for he is as intelligent and wise as a person is, and I would even say even more. He is an outstanding mind and a philosophical teacher. Their new relationship is a friendship, a peer to peer, but also a teacher to student. This part of their relationship is shown through the protagonist's admiration for Ishmael.
Make 2 inferences regarding the "Leavers".
I infer that the Leavers are the people that we refer to as savages, indigenous, and primitive. These are the people that take what they need and LEAVE the rest, the people that control their population growth, and do not have surpluses. These are the people that are trying to save the world. I also infer that they were the creators of the civilization system that does work. I also infer that these are going to be the first people to evolve, since evolution only occurs when there is a need, when the fittest survive.
Define "Mother Culture".
Mother Culture is society. It is what tells you how to do things, why to do them. It suggests you to comply with her orders, follow her teachings. The reason why culture is put into a female role is because, since ancient history, women have taught children, passed on their knowledge, their way of living; they have passed on their culture. It is how the story we're enacting was formed, through the forming of our globalized society's culture.
Do you agree with Ishmael?
Yes I do agree with Ishmael, since reading the whole book persuaded me to think like him. Takers are destroying the world, and Taker culture is the destructive behavior we should refuse to obey, but Mother Culture's holds are too strong. We need to adopt Leaver culture and hope that we can strengthen their Mother Culture, because if we don't, we are doomed. Maybe we can create another civilizational system that grabs the good things from both systems (Taker and Leaver) and leaves the bad things out. The thing is, we might plunge back into icy waters, but we won't notice it, just like it happened when we first developed the Taker civilization system.